By H. Faesul. Brigham Young University Idaho.

Osteo- graphic morphology to the biological behavior and patho- chondroma discount 20 mg tadacip amex impotence depression, osteoma purchase tadacip 20 mg amex erectile dysfunction killing me, blastoma, giant sarcoma, non ossifying osteoblastoma cell tumor, Ewing-sarcoma, bone fibroma, aneurysmal chondrosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, bone cyst metastases ⊡ Table 4. Typical sites of tumors within the long bone infarct bones (malignant tumors are shown in red) Possibly follow- Scintigram, CT scan and/ Scintigram, Site Tumor up, no further CT scan, or MRI thorax-x-ray Epiphysis Chondroblastoma, clear cell chondro- steps possibly MRI or CT-scan of sarcoma the lungs, MRI, poss. CT-scan Metaphysis Osteochondroma, non-ossifying bone of tumor-site fibroma, juvenile bone cyst, osteoblas- toma, giant cell tumor (usually with epiphyseal involvement), aneurysmal Resection Biopsy Biopsy at bone cyst, osteosarcoma, chondrosar- institution, coma where further treatment is Diaphysis Fibrous dysplasia, osteofibrous dyspla- carried out sia, Ewing sarcoma, adamantinoma Secondarily in Osteochondroma, non-ossifying bone ⊡ Fig. Diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm based on the conven- diaphysis fibroma, juvenile bone cyst tional x-ray 588 4. Since their classification already provides the formation of new stabilizing bone (sclerosis, increased valuable information about the aggressive nature to be thickness). In the case of faster growth the bone does not expected, without any knowledge of the histology, it will have time to react with new bone formation, and osteolysis be described briefly below. If bone breakdown predominates, osteolysis results, whereas ex- Periosteal reactions cessive bone formation results in osteosclerosis. The turn- Tumors can produce widely differing periosteal reactions over processes differ depending on whether cancellous or (⊡ Table 4. But these are not visible on the x-ray until they 4 The above statements indicate that the site is very important for the appearance of the tumor on the x-ray. While the degree of loading influences the reaction to tu- mor growth, the appearance on the x-ray is most strongly affected by the rate of tumor growth. Destruction pattern in compact and cancellous bone according to Lodwick and Wilson The classification system involves three basic patterns of bone destruction: ▬ I: geographic (map-like), primarily involving the can- cellous bone, ▬ II: mixed forms (geographic and moth-eaten/perme- ative), ▬ III: moth-eaten lesion, in compact and cancellous bone, or permeative destruction in the compact bone only. Various grades are differentiated according to the reac- tion of the compact bone and the penetration of the cortex in each case (⊡ Table 4. Destruction pattern in bone on the x-ray according to Lod- of slow growth, the surrounding healthy bone reacts by wick. Radiological grading of bone tumors based on the reaction of the compact bone and the penetration of the cortex Type Destruction Contours Compact Sclerosis Growth Periosteal Typical examples (grade) bone reaction penetra- tion IA Geographic Sharply-defined No Yes Slow None Enchondroma, non-ossifying bone fibroma, osteoid osteoma IB Geographic Ragged, No, poss. Mostly yes Slow Solid Giant cell tumor, chondro- irregular partially blastoma, juvenile bone cyst, osteoblastoma, chondromyxoid fibroma, aneurysmal bone cyst IC Geographic Poorly-defined, Yes Possible Slow Solid Chondrosarcoma, aneurysmal reef-like bone cyst II Mixed geo- Poorly-defined Yes Mostly no Inter- Bowl-shaped Osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, graphic and mediate chondrosarcoma moth-eaten/ permeative III Moth-eaten/ Poorly-defined Yes Mostly no Fast Radial, on- Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma permeative ion-skin-like, complex 589 4 4. Types of periosteal reaction Periosteum Cortical bone Appearance Typical lesions Continuous Intact Solid Chronic osteomyelitis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, osteoid osteoma, single lamella Chronic osteomyelitis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis onion skin, spicules (radial) Acute osteomyelitis, Ewing sarcoma, (osteosarcoma) Continuous Destroyed Single bowl Aneurysmal bone cyst, enchondroma, chondroblastoma, lobulated bowl Chondromyxoid fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, giant cell tumor ragged bowl Chondrosarcoma, plasmacytoma, metastases Interrupted Intact wedge-shaped Aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, chondromyxoid fibroma Codman triangle, interrupted onion Aneurysmal bone cyst, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, skin, radial chondrosarcoma Interrupted Destroyed Combinations of Codman triangle, Osteosarcoma interrupted onion skin, divergent rays ⊡ Fig. These are typical of enchondromas, osteochon- related (the older the patient the longer the process). Necrotic areas (bone in- morphology is determined by the aggressivity and dura- farcts) can calcify and ossify secondarily. The periosteal reaction formation of new bone that mineralizes can occur in can either be continuous or intermittent, with or without varying degrees in almost all lesions and may obscure cortical destruction. Matrix mineralization Bone scan and positron emission tomography (PET) Some tumors form a matrix, a cell-free intercellular The technetium 99 bone scan is a relatively non-specific 4 ground substance that mineralizes, i. Typical matrix-forming tumors are: and thus bone turnover activity, to be evaluated. Ac- ▬ osteoblastoma, osteoid osteoma , osteosarcoma (ma- tive processes show greatly increased uptake, whereas trix = bone ground substance or osteoid), older, »burnt-out« processes show little uptake. Particu- ▬ osteochondroma , enchondroma , chondromyxoid larly high levels of uptake are observed for bone-form- fibroma, chondrosarcoma, (matrix = cartilaginous ing tumors such as osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma and ground substance), osteosarcoma. A case of osteomyelitis can be differentiated ▬ desmoplastic fibroma, fibrosarcoma (matrix = col- from a tumor (e. Ewing sarcoma) by adding gallium 67 lagen fibers), as a »tracer« or by means of antigranulocyte immunos- ▬ fibrous dysplasia (matrix = mixed: osteoid and col- cintigraphy. The bone scan is the simplest and most cost-effec- teoid, chondroid or collagen fibers).

Clark/Treisman 82 Excitatory amino acids such as glutamate are critical for nociceptive pro- cessing discount tadacip 20 mg online erectile dysfunction protocol scam. A central glutamate transporter system regulates the uptake of endoge- nous glutamate [Sung et al order tadacip 20 mg with visa erectile dysfunction cures. Chronic constriction nerve injury induces an initial glutamate transporter upregulation that inhibits the development of neuro- pathic pain behaviors. Subsequent glutamate transporter downregulation was associated with the emergence of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Glutamate alone acts at both ionotropic and metabotropic types of receptors [Fundytus, 2001; Haberny et al. Receptors coupled directly to ion channels are activated by NMDA, -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4- proprionic acid (AMPA), and kainate but metabotropic receptors are G-protein- coupled, interact with intracellular second messengers, and are classified according to structure, signal transduction properties, and receptor pharmacology [Pin and Acher, 2002; Trist, 2000]. In addition, glutamate receptors inhibit or facilitate nociception depending upon their location throughout the CNS. Glutamate also affects aspects of opioid function as well as the broader experi- ence of pain such as depression and anxiety. When calcium enters the cell with the activation of the NMDA receptor, second messengers such as protein kinase C, cGMP, and polyphosphoinosites are generated [Riedel and Neeck, 2001]. Nitric oxide synthase is stimulated and nitric oxide diffuses into neighboring neu- rons to activate guanylyl cyclase. Adenosine may be a more subtle homeostatic modulator acting through G-protein-coupled receptors that can inhibit or enhance neuronal activity [Ribeiro et al. Adenosine receptors inhibit the develop- ment and maintenance of central sensitization of spinal dorsal horn neurons. Approximately 75% of the opioid receptors in the dorsal horn are presy- naptic and when stimulated reduce the release of neurotransmitters from pri- mary nociceptive afferents. During inflammation and nerve injury, increased NMDA activity promotes central sensitization and tolerance to opioids, chole- cystokinin interferes with opioid analgesia, morphine-3-glucuronide antago- nizes opioid analgesia, and presynaptic opioids are lost [Basbaum, 1994; Bennett, 2000]. Functional inhibition of NMDA receptors may occur as a result of activation at any of the following recognition sites: competitive primary trans- mitter, strychnine-insensitive glycine (B), polyamine NR2B selective, and phencyclidine [Parsons, 2001]. When activated, GABAB receptors suppress the presynaptic release of excitatory amino acids from primary affer- ent terminals whereas GABAA receptors have postsynaptic actions [Sivilotti and Woolf, 1994]. Neurobiology of Pain 83 Ascending Tract and Descending Inhibition Mechanisms Second order neurons project to supraspinal structures in the ascending tracts of the contralateral anterolateral spinal cord (spinothalamic, spinoreticu- lar, spinomesencephalic) although not all fibers decussate and a latent ipsilat- eral pathway is present. The ventroposterior nuclei of the thalamus represent the sensory-discriminative (temporal and spatial) aspects of pain and the medial nuclei are involved with the affective-motivational features of pain. Increased thalamic activity has been associated with acute experimental pain in contrast to chronic pain states, which are associated with decreased thalamic activity on positron emission tomography [Iadarola et al. The basal ganglia receive nociceptive information from multiple afferent sources [Chudler and Dong, 1995]. Positron emission tomog- raphy has implicated the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in central pain modulation with increased D2 receptor binding and presumed decline in endogenous dopamine levels in the putamen of patients with burn mouth syn- drome [Hagelberg et al. Opioids produce changes in locomotion that correlate with the nigrostriatal release of dopamine [Di Chiara and Imperato, 1988]. The role of the cortical structures in pain and suffering is less well under- stood. The parietal lobes and somatosensory cortex probably contribute to the sensory-discriminative component and the cingulate cortex with the affective component of pain [Jannetta et al. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, reduced levels of N-acetylaspartate associated with neuronal degeneration have been found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with chronic low back pain and complex regional pain syndrome type I [Grachev et al.

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Test for shoulder flexion by having the patient flex the arm against resistance tadacip 20mg otc erectile dysfunction treatments vacuum. This tests the anterior portion of the deltoid buy 20 mg tadacip otc erectile dysfunction and age, which is innervated by the axillary nerve (C5), and the coracobrachialis (C5). Test the patient’s extension by having the patient extend the upper arm against resistance. This tests the latissimus dorsi, which is inner- vated by the thoracodorsal nerve (C6–C8); the teres major, which is innervated by the lower subscapular nerve (C5–C6); and the posterior portion of the patient’s deltoid, which is innervated by the axillary nerve (C5–C6). Test the patient’s abduction by having the patient abduct the arm against resistance (Photo 5). This tests the middle portion of the deltoid, which is innervated by the axillary nerve (C5–C6); and the supraspina- tus, which is innervated by the suprascapular nerve (C5–C6). Therefore, it is important to test abduction by resisting the movement throughout its range of motion (or at least to 90°). Test the patient’s adduction by having the patient adduct the upper arm against resistance (Photo 6). This tests the patient’s pectoralis major, which is innervated by the medial and lateral anterior thoracic nerves (C5–T1); the latissimus dorsi, which is innervated by the thoracodorsal 24 Musculoskeletal Diagnosis Photo 6. Test the patient’s external rotation by having the patient externally rotate the arm against resistance (Photo 7). This tests the infraspinatus muscle, which is innervated by the suprascapular nerve (C5–C6); and the teres minor, which is innervated by the axillary nerve (C5). Test the patient’s internal rotation by having the patient internally rotate against resistance (Photo 8). This tests the patient’s subscapularis muscle, which is innervated by the upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5–C6); the pectoralis major muscle, which is innervated by the medial and lateral anterior thoracic nerves (C5–T1); the latissimus dorsi, which is innervated by the thoracodorsal nerve (C6–C8); and the teres major, which is innervated by the lower subscapular nerve (C5–C6). Test the patient’s scapular elevation by having the patient shrug his or her shoulders against resistance (Photo 9). This tests the patient’s trapezius—which is innervated by the spinal accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI)—and the levator scapulae—which is innervated by branches of the dorsal scapular nerve (C5). It is possible, although not routinely done, to test the patient’s scapular retraction by having the patient stand “at attention” by throw- ing the shoulders back against the examiner’s resistance. The examiner should provide resistance in this instance by trying to bend the patient’s shoulders forward. This tests the patient’s rhomboid major and minor muscles, both of which are innervated by the dorsal scapu- lar nerve (C5). Test for scapular protraction by having the patient push with two hands against a wall (Photo 10). This tests the patient’s serratus ante- rior muscle, which is innervated by the long thoracic nerve (C5–C7). If the serratus anterior muscle is weak, medial scapular winging will be 26 Musculoskeletal Diagnosis Photo 9. If the trapezius is weak, there may be lateral scapular winging evident. Table 1 lists the movements of the shoulder, along with the involved muscles and their innervation. Shoulder Pain 27 Table 1 Primary Muscles and Root Level of Innervation for Shoulder and Scapular Movement Major muscle Primary muscles movement involved Primary innervation Shoulder flexion 1.

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The classical biphasic has not proved possible to resect the tumor with a type shows spindle-shaped fibroblasts with moderate margin of healthy tissue order tadacip 20mg with visa thyroid erectile dysfunction treatment, the tumor bed and regional atypia and usually few mitoses generic tadacip 20mg on line relative impotence judiciary. Radiotherapy also swirls or strands of fairly large cells rich in cytoplasm, has drawbacks however. Secondary tumors are not readily discernible borders and vesicular nuclei. MRI scans of an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the medioposterior femoral muscles of an 18-year old girl. In view of the good primary ▬ Prognosis: Synovial sarcomas have a marked tendency prognosis, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is appro- to recur and metastasize, although it can take a long priate only for non-radically resectable or metastasiz- time for the metastases to appear since the tumor ing tumors. Consequently, the five-year sur- vival rate is not sufficient for evaluating the success of Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) treatment, and the result can only be evaluated after (schwannoma) 10 years. The initial size of the tumor has a significant Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) predictive value. It occurs as a solitary tumor ▬ The treatment consists of a wide resection with in adolescents principally in connection with von Reck- subsequent polychemotherapy and radiotherapy [14, linghausen disease. The regional lymph nodes should also be re- white tumors, usually in connection with a peripheral moved. Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma Since the tumors spread along the nerves the surgical This tumor is much rarer than the osseous form of Ewing procedure can prove problematic. Isolated limb perfusion with specific chemotherapeu- ▬ Histologically it is indistinguishable from the intraos- tic agents (tumor necrosis factor«) can prove success- seous Ewing sarcoma. Infantile fibrosarcoma Fibrosarcoma mainly affects adult patients over 30 years of age and is rare in children. Congenital cases do exist, however, and these infantile or congenital fibrosarcomas usually occur during the first 12 months of life, particu- larly in male patients, and are located predominantly on the distal parts of the extremities. The more collagen the tumor contains the more it resembles the adult type of fibrosarcoma. Both forms show numerous mitoses, an important differential diagnostic criterion, in dis- tinguishing them from fibromatoses. In contrast with the adult form, lymphocytic infiltrates are often pres- ⊡ Fig. MRI scan of amalignant peripheral nerve sheath tumorin an ent, as are highly vascular hemangiopericytoma-like 11-year old girl, originating from the sacral nerve roots and spreading sections. Bhattacharya B, Dilworth HP, Iacobuzio-Donahue C, Ricci F, Weber children: prognosis and management. Paediatr Drugs 4 (1): 21–8 K, Furlong MA, Fisher C, Montgomery E (2005) Nuclear beta- 22. Lackner H, Urban C, Benesch M, Raith J, Moser A, Sovinz P, catenin expression distinguishes deep fibromatosis from other Schwinger W, Dornbusch HJ, Triebl-Roth K (2004) Multimodal benign and malignant fibroblastic and myofibroblastic lesions. Breneman J, Lyden E, Pappo A, Link M, Anderson J, Parham D, Hematol Oncol. Lev-Chelouche D, Abu-Abeid S, Kollander Y, Meller I, Isakov J, Paidas C, Crist W (2003) Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes Merimsky O, Klausner J, Gutman M (1999) Multifocal soft tis- in children and adolescents with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma sue sarcoma: limb salvage following hyperthermic isolated limb – a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV. Lewis J, Antonescu C, Leung D, Blumberg D, Healey J, Woodruff (1990) Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant child- J, Brennan M (2000) Synovial sarcoma: a multivariate analysis of hood tumors. Clin Orthop 251: 235–40 prognostic factors in 112 patients with primary localized tumors 4. Casadei R, Ricci M, Ruggieri P, Biagini R, Benassi S, Picci P, Cam- Surg Pathol 16: 1017–20 panacci M (1991) Chondrosarcoma of the soft tissues. Milchgrub S, Ghandur-Mnaymneh L, Dorfman HD, Albores-Saa- ent sub-groups. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 73: 162–8 vedra J (1993) Synovial sarcoma with extensive osteoid and bone 6.

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