Loading

Kamagra Oral Jelly

By Y. Varek. Covenant College.

X Neither qualitative nor quantitative research is better – they are just different discount 100mg kamagra oral jelly fast delivery erectile dysfunction causes natural treatment. X Your own intuition and the words you use will give pointers to whether qualitative or quantitative research is more appropriate for your chosen project generic kamagra oral jelly 100mg with amex erectile dysfunction ear. X The term ‘triangulation’ is used when a combination of qualitative and quantitative forms of inquiry are used. FURTHER READING The theoretical and philosophical issues raised in this chapter are detailed and complex and cannot be discussed in depth in this book. However, if you wish to pursue any of these topics, some of the useful publications are listed below under the relevant topics. Qualitative research Over recent years there has been a great deal of innova- tion in the use of qualitative methodologies. Listed below are some of the more traditional texts and a selection of the newer, innovative texts. Before you de- cide which would be the most appropriate methods for your research, you need to find out a little more about these tools. This chapter gives a description of the meth- ods of interviewing, focus groups, questionnaires and par- ticipant observation. Chapters 7–10 will go on to describe in detail how to use each of these methods. The most common of these are unstructured, semi-structured and structured interviews. If you want to find out about other types of interview, relevant references are given at the end of this chapter. Unstructured interviews Unstructured or in-depth interviews are sometimes called life history interviews. This is because they are the fa- voured approach for life history research. In this type of interview, the researcher attempts to achieve a holistic un- derstanding of the interviewees’ point of view or situation. For example, if you want to find out about a Polish man’s experiences of a concentration camp during the war, 27 28 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS you’re delving into his life history. Because you are unsure of what has happened in his life, you want to enable him to talk freely and ask as few questions as possible. It is for this reason that this type of interview is called unstruc- tured – the participant is free to talk about what he or she deems important, with little directional influence from the researcher. As the researcher tries to ask as few questions as possible, people often assume that this type of interviewing is the easiest. Re- searchers have to be able to establish rapport with the par- ticipant – they have to be trusted if someone is to reveal intimate life information. Also, some people find it very difficult to remain quiet while another person talks, sometimes for hours on end. Researchers need to remain alert, recognising important information and probing for more detail. They need to know how to tactfully steer someone back from totally irrelevant digressions. Also, it is important to realise that unstructured interviewing can produce a great deal of data which can be difficult to analyse. Semi-structured interviews Semi-structured interviewing is perhaps the most com- mon type of interview used in qualitative social research.

discount 100 mg kamagra oral jelly free shipping

Do not disclose information to third parties unless you have received permission to do so (see Chapter 13) kamagra oral jelly 100 mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction urethral medication. ASKING QUESTIONS AND PROBING FOR INFORMATION As the interview progresses purchase kamagra oral jelly 100 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction causes cycling, ask questions, listen carefully 72 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS to responses and probe for more information. When you probe, you need to think about obtaining clar- ification, elaboration, explanation and understanding. There are several ways to probe for more detail, as the fol- lowing list illustrates. PROBING FOR MORE DETAIL X That’s interesting; can you explain that in more de- tail? You’ll find that most people are uncomfortable during silences and will elaborate on what they’ve said rather than experience discomfort. Also, you may find it helpful to summarise what people have said as a way of finding out if you have understood them and to determine whether they wish to add any further information. Another useful tactic is to repeat the last few words a per- son has said, turning it into a question. The following piece of dialogue from an interview illustrates how these techniques can be used so that the researcher does not in- fluence what is being said. HOW TO CONDUCT INTERVIEWS / 73 Janet: ‘Well, often I find it really difficult because I just don’t think the information’s available. I wer- en’t exactly naughty at school, I just didn’t really bother, you know, I didn’t really like it that much, if I’m honest with you. SUMMARY X Practise with the recording equipment before the inter- view takes place. It might be useful to conduct some pilot interviews so that you can become familiar with the recording equipment. X Develop an interview schedule, starting with general, 74 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS non-personal issues. X Check the recording equipment works and make sure you have enough tapes, batteries, paper, pens, etc. X Check that you have a suitable venue in which to carry out the interview, free from noise and interruptions. X Make sure you know how to get to the interview and arrive in good time. X Negotiate a length of time for the interview and stick to it, unless the interviewee is happy to continue. X Check recording equipment is working without draw- ing attention to it. X Achieve closure, thank them and leave a contact num- berincasetheywishtogetintouchwithyouabout anything that has arisen. HOW TO CONDUCT INTERVIEWS / 75 X Respect their confidentiality – do not pass on what has been said to third parties unless you have requested permission to do so. They are popular within the fields of market research, political research and educational research. The focus group is facilitated by a moderator who asks questions, probes for more detail, makes sure the discussion does not digress and tries to ensure that everyone has an input and that no one person dominates the discussion. If you are interested in running focus groups for your re- search you will need to acquire a basic understanding of how people interact in a group setting and learn how to deal with awkward situations (see Table 8). However, the best way to become a successful moderator is through experience and practice. If possible, try to sit in on a focus group run by an experienced moderator. Once you have done this, hold your own pilot focus group, either with friends or ac- tual research participants.

For example generic 100mg kamagra oral jelly with amex impotence from blood pressure medication, if you want to go into schools and observe classroom practice cheap 100 mg kamagra oral jelly fast delivery erectile dysfunction daily medication, you wouldn’t choose to do this research during the sum- mer holiday. It might sound obvious, but I have found 8 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS some students present a well-written research proposal which, in practical terms, will not work because the par- ticipants will be unavailable during the proposed data collection stage. Once you have thought about these five ‘Ws’, try to sum up your proposed project in one sentence. When you have done this, take it to several people, including your boss and/or tutor, and ask them if it makes sense. If they don’t, ask them to explain their confusion, revise your statement and take it back to them. I can’t overemphasise the importance of this stage of the re- search process. If you get it right now, you will find that the rest of your work should flow smoothly. EXERCISE 1 Have a look at the three projects below and see if you can spot any potential problems. What questions would you ask to make the researchers focus in on their pro- posed project? Statement 1: This research aims to find out what people think about television. HOW TO DEFINE YOUR PROJECT / 9 Statement 2: My project is to do some research into Alz- heimer’s disease, to find out what people do when their relatives have it and what support they can get and how nurses deal with it. Statement 3: We want to find out how many of the local residents are interested in a play scheme for children dur- ing the summer holiday. Points to consider Statement 1: This research aims to find out what people think about television. TV companies already employ market researchers to conduct a great deal of research into public viewing, and they have much larger budgets available to them. There’s little point in repeating re- search if it cannot be improved upon. However, if the researcher has an interest in this parti- cular issue, or is perhaps on a media studies course, there are a number of ways in which this research could become more manageable. The researcher could focus in on a particular type of programme and/or a particu- lar type of person. For example, she could decide to show an Open University programme to potential OU students and find out what they thought about the pro- 10 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS gramme in a series of focus groups. Or she could choose children’s programming and find out what tea- chers think about the educational value of these pro- grammes. Or she could ask business people what they think about a programme aimed specifically at the busi- ness community. Finally, maybe she could ask fellow students to keep a diary of their television viewing over a week and then interview them about their viewing ha- bits. The researcher needs to decide exactly where her inter- ests lie and focus in on those interests. Statement 2: My project is to do some research into Alz- heimer’s disease, to find out what people do when their relatives have it and what support they can get and how nurses deal with it. The topic itself is more focused as the researcher has mentioned, specifically, the areas he wishes to consider – nurses’ attitudes, carers’ experiences and available support.

purchase kamagra oral jelly 100mg without prescription

Kay Toombs recounts: “My neurologist discount kamagra oral jelly 100 mg free shipping erectile dysfunction young causes, in dis- cussing the pros and cons of estrogen therapy to prevent osteoporosis buy kamagra oral jelly 100 mg on line erectile dysfunction treatment home veda, tells me that I do not need to worry about falling and breaking bones—because People Talking to Their Physicians / 137 I will not be able to stand up” (1995, 22). Without thinking, her neurolo- gist may see Toombs as literally “confined” to her wheelchair, but of course she is not. Falls happen as people move in and out of wheelchairs to chairs, to beds, to toilets, to shower seats, to cars, and so on. Toombs probably now takes this neurologist’s observations with circumspection. Cynthia Walker concluded that, “You have to get information and learn as much about your own condition as you can. She doesn’t always follow her physician’s advice, particularly when it ignores practical realities. Her rheumatologist prescribed an orthotic or ankle brace: “It’s an artificial way to fuse my joint to find relief when I’m walking. In short, sometimes I feel that I am the doctor in practice, and he’s the patient who’s learning. Gracie Brown, now in her mid seventies, had a knee that used to “ache, ache, ache all day, and all I did was rub it, rub it, rub it. The doc- tor that I went to then passed it off for a few years: “Oh, it’s just a little arthritis. A friend at a Boston hospital gave me a recommendation for a doctor over there. I went, and he sent me to a physical therapist and gave me exercises and things that really helped me. He did as much as he needed to do 138 People Talking to Their Physicians in two visits. Sanderson underscored something emphasized by many interview- ees: that physicians should refer patients to specialists for problems outside their expertise. People do not see referrals as admissions of inadequacy; they know medical knowledge is vast and continually expanding. Referrals to specialists show respect, concern, and a desire to do everything possible. Some people are reluctant to ask for referrals, afraid of offending the doctor. Sanderson hadn’t asked her physician for a referral—she just didn’t want to: “He was very upset when he found I had gone to another doctor. Visits to physicians grow shorter and shorter as financial pres- sures mount. For most [other] black people I’ve seen, they rush you in and rush you out. People like Erna Dodd, who had em- physema, diabetes requiring insulin, congestive heart failure, seizures, obesity, and arthritis, need considerable attention to manage active illness (e. Ironically, addressing the full range of health-related concerns may require multiple office visits for the people least able to get around. Beyond limited discussion times, shortened appointments have physical consequences.

order 100mg kamagra oral jelly

Timing of Operation The acute knee generic kamagra oral jelly 100 mg visa erectile dysfunction by race, with a marked limited range of motion order kamagra oral jelly 100 mg with amex erectile dysfunction diabetes pathophysiology, and induration, should be treated conservatively, until the knee becomes less inflamed. Operation in this acute situation often results in postoperative stiffness and difficulty in obtaining range of motion. Immature Athlete The preteenage athlete with an ACL tear is a rare clinical situation, and is difficult to manage. The natural history of the immature athlete with an ACL tear is pessimistic. If the youngster cannot, or will not, give up sports, then an ACL reconstruction should be carried out. The objective is to stabilize the knee and prevent recurrent giving way episodes that cause further damage to the meniscus and the articular surface. The tibial tunnel should be drilled in the center of the epiphysis, avoiding the tibial tubercle. The semitendinosus graft should be taken over the top or through a femoral tunnel and fixed with an Endo-button. In the preoperative assessment of the teenager, it is important to X-ray the patient to assess the growth plates around the knee. Medial Compartment Osteoarthritis and the ACL-Deficient Knee The association of medial compartment osteoarthritis and the ACL- deficient knee is a common clinical situation. In the early phase, the ACL reconstruction should be the principal procedure, with an arthro- scopic debridement of the medial compartment. When the medial compartment wear is more severe, and the patient is still complaining of giving way, still has a positive pivot-shift test, and has a moderate degree of clinical varus in the standing position, then the ligament reconstruction should be combined with a high tibial osteotomy. Complications When the medial compartment wear is marked, the varus is moder- ately severe, the patient lacks full knee extension, and has a negative pivot-shift test, then the high tibial osteotomy should be the only pro- cedure carried out. Intraoperative Complications Patellar Tendon Harvest Problem The patellar tendon harvest results in a small, thin, or fractured bone plug. Solution The first solution is to use a coring reamer in the tibia, and bone graft the plug in a piggyback fashion (Fig. A supplemental, large BioScrew may be used to secure the tendon in the tibial tunnel. Prevention The prevention of this complication is to use a saw, such as a cast saw, to initially cut the cortex at 90°, and then cut at a 60° angle to a depth of 8mm (Fig. Solution The graft source may be changed to either a patellar tendon or an allo- graft. Prevention The short graft may be prevented with a careful harvest technique that emphasizes the cutting of the bands to the gastrocnemius. When pulling on the tendon, look at the skin over the gastrocnemius for dimpling. Solution The first option is to change the dropped graft to another graft source, such as the semitendinosus or patellar tendon from the same side. The second option is to cleanse the graft with Hibiclens (chlorhex- 160 9. The cleansing should consist of multiple washing and irrigations of the graft. Prevention The graft should only be passed with towel clip in a basin (Fig. It always drops half way between the back table and the operating room table.

generic kamagra oral jelly 100mg online

Kamagra Oral Jelly
10 of 10 - Review by Y. Varek
Votes: 46 votes
Total customer reviews: 46
Online Shopping